Age assessments should not be a routine part of a local authority's assessment of unaccompanied or trafficked children.
Care of Unaccompanied Migrant Children and Child Victims of Modern Slavery - Statutory Guidance for Local Authorities November provides that where the age of a person is uncertain and there are reasonable grounds to believe that they are under 18, they will be treated as a child in order to receive immediate access to assistance, support and protection in accordance with section 51 of the Modern Slavery Act An age assessment should only be carried out if it is appropriate to do so, and should not cause a delay in referring into the NRM.
Where age assessments are conducted, they must be compliant with case law of Merton and subsequent judgments. The advice of a paediatrician with experience in considering age may be needed to assist in this, in the context of a holistic assessment.
Human Trafficking Part 2 - Insatiable
However, the High Court has ruled that, unless a paediatrician's report can add something specific to an assessment of age undertaken by an experienced social worker, it will not be necessary. It governs what help, if any, can be provided to the family and how help can be offered to the child. All children, irrespective of their immigration status, are entitled to protection under the law. Local authorities need to ensure that child victims receive legal advice and support.
Where families are subject to immigration legislation which precludes support to the family, many will disappear into the community and wait until benefits can be awarded to them. During this interim period the children may suffer particular hardship - e. They are particularly vulnerable to exploitation because of their circumstances. It may be appropriate for unaccompanied children to be informed of the availability of the Assisted Voluntary Return Scheme. There are four main possible outcomes of the asylum process for an unaccompanied child, which will determine what the long term solution might be.
These are outlined below including the impact they may have on care and pathway planning:. The Secretary of State must consult the Independent Family Returns Panel in each family returns case, on how best to safeguard and promote the welfare of the children of the family, and in each case where the Secretary of State proposes to detain a family in pre-departure accommodation, on the suitability of so doing, having particular regard to the need to safeguard and promote the welfare of the children of the family.
Pre-departure accommodation is a secure facility designed to be used as a last resort where families fail to co-operate with other options to leave the UK, such as the offer of assisted voluntary return.
The Panel may request information in order that any return plan for a particular family has taken into account any information held by other agencies that relates to safeguarding, welfare or child protection. In particular a social worker or manager from Children's Social Care may be invited to contribute to the Panel. A local authority as a 'first responder' identifying a potential victim of modern slavery must refer them to the National Referral Mechanism NRM for consideration by the competent authority.
Children's Social Care departments are able to make a referral into the NRM, as they may be entitled to further support. Victims can be of any nationality, and may include British national children, such as those trafficked for child sexual exploitation or those trafficked as drug carriers internally in the UK. The NRM does not supersede child protection procedures, so existing safeguarding processes should still be followed in tandem with the notifications to the NRM. There is no minimum requirement for justifying a referral into the NRM and consent is not required for children.
Communicate honestly with the child about your concerns and reasons for referring them into the NRM.
To complete and see where to send the forms, and the associated guidance, visit Modern Slavery Victims: Referral and Assessment Forms. It is intended to gather better data about modern slavery. This requirement can be satisfied by completing the National Referral Mechanism Form. Whenever any professional comes across a child who they believe has recently moved into this country the following basic information should be sought:.
Whether they are unaccompanied or accompanied by someone who is not their parent they should be assumed to be a Child in Need unless assessment indicates that this is not the case. The assessment of need should include a separate discussion with the child in a setting where, as far as possible, they feel able to talk freely. This, in itself, may be a complex process where the assessor may not be able to speak the same language as the child. The Assessment will be conducted in accordance with the Single Assessment Procedure. The following additional issues will also need to be taken into consideration.
This is a highly complex area of work and professionals will need to have available to them a solid understanding of the asylum process or colleagues or other professionals with such expertise. Seeking information from abroad should be a routine part of assessing the situation of an unaccompanied child.
- Commentary on 1 and 2 Thessalonians;
- National Human Trafficking Assessment Tool | Canadian Council for Refugees.
- The Haunters and The Haunted?
Practitioners from all key agencies - Health, Education, Children's Social Care and the Police - should all be prepared to request information from their equivalent agencies in the country or countries in which a child has lived, in order to gain as full as possible a picture of the child's preceding circumstances.
The child should be offered an Independent Visitor and, if they decline, their reasons should be recorded. Any Independent Visitor appointed should have appropriate training and demonstrate an understanding of the needs faced by unaccompanied or trafficked children. The Assessment should take account of any particular psychological or emotional impact of experiences as an unaccompanied or trafficked child, and any consequent need for psychological or mental health support to help the child deal with them.
Unaccompanied migrant children and child victims of modern slavery will need access to specialist legal advice and support. This will be in relation to immigration and asylum applications and decisions and any associated legal proceedings. If they have been a victim of modern slavery, it may also be in relation to criminal proceedings or compensation claims.
The assessment should note that specialist legal support is required and how it will be provided. Planning for the child should include planning for a variety of possible outcomes regarding the child's immigration status - see Asylum Process - Possible Outcomes. It encompasses human trafficking, slavery, servitude and forced labour. The Modern Slavery Act provides better protection for victims and increases the sentences for committing these offences.
Grooming methods are often used to gain the trust of a child and their parents, e. Trafficked victims are coerced or deceived by the person arranging their relocation, and are often subject to physical, sexual and mental abuse.
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The trafficked child or person is denied their human rights and is forced into exploitation by the trafficker or person into whose control they are delivered. Children are not considered able to give 'informed consent' to their own exploitation including criminal exploitation , so it is not necessary to consider the means used for the exploitation - whether they were forced, coerced or deceived, i.
Boys and girls of all ages are affected and can be trafficked into, within 'internal trafficking' , and out of the UK for many reasons and all forms of exploitation. Victims may be sexually exploited and forced into sex work. Victims have been found in brothels, saunas and lap dancing clubs. Persons subject to forced labour have been found working with little or no pay in farms, factories, nail bars, car washes, hotels and restaurants.
Domestic servitude involves victims who work in a household where they are subject to long working hours with little or no pay, often in very poor working conditions.
Human Trafficking Part 2 - Insatiable
Sometimes forced marriage can lead to domestic servitude. Criminal exploitation can involve young people being forced to work in cannabis cultivation, county lines exploitation, begging and pick-pocketing. Other types of exploitation include debt bondage being forced to work to pay off debts that realistically they will never be able to , organ harvesting, financial fraud including benefit fraud , and illegal adoption. Victims often face more than one type of abuse and slavery, for example they may be sold to another trafficker and then forced into another form of exploitation.
Children and young people may be exploited by parents, carers or family members. Often the child or young person will not realise that family members are involved in the exploitation.
39 - and how many more? Part 2 – Blue Dragon Children's Foundation
Some children are unaware that they have been trafficked, while others may actively participate in hiding that they have been trafficked. Even when a child understands what has happened, they may still appear to submit willingly to what they believe to be the will of their parents or accompanying adults. It is important that these children are protected too. Children do not have the legal capacity to 'consent' to their trafficking or their exploitation. Signs that a child has been trafficked may not be obvious, or children may show signs of multiple forms of abuse and neglect.
Physical Appearance - Victims may show signs of physical or psychological abuse, look malnourished or unkempt, or appear withdrawn.
- BLAZE: The Beginning;
- Human Trafficking: The Myths and the Realities.
- A visit to Penang, Malaysia (2 Bags and a Pack World Tour Book 5);
- Patient Safety: A Case-Based Comprehensive Guide.
- Friedman on Contracts and Conveyances of Real Property (October 2016 Edition) (Practising Law Institutes Real Property Law Library)?
- The Hope Chest (Brides of Lancaster County Book 4).
Physical Illnesses - Including work-related injuries through poor health and safety measures, or injuries apparently as a result of assault or controlling measures. There may be physical indications of working e. Psychological Indicators - Suffering from post traumatic stress disorder which may include symptoms of hostility, aggression and difficulty with recalling episodes and concentrating.
Once a potential victim has been identified, practitioners should inform them of their right to protection, support, and assistance in any criminal proceedings against offenders. The police investigation, which included multiple agencies, began in August. The Jupiter Police Department received a warrant to install surveillance cameras in a massage parlor in January. In the videos, police officers said, they witnessed men groping women and engaging in oral sex with the victims without condoms, and paying them afterward in cash. Police found evidence that the victims lived in the spas and parlors.
In one routine health inspection, the inspector found bedsheets, suitcases, and other signs that people lived inside. According to police , the victims averaged eight clients a day. Der Artikel wurde versandt.