This fourth season episode, told by Betty Ann, sees an aspiring comic book artist accidentally unleash his villainous Ghastly Grinner, a sinister Joker-like character that turns others into cackling, mindless zombies that drool blue ooze. The teen has to learn confidence in his artistic abilities if he has any hope to thwart this manic enemy.
This second season, episode 2 story is also told by Gary, and revolves around an alternate version of Nosferatu. An old theater is in danger of closing, and the mysterious Dr. Turns out, the creepy Count Orlock in the film is able to escape into the real world.
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And that door works both ways. Tucker tells the Midnight Society of a teen who got more than they bargained for when they steal an object from a former sea captain. An object that happens to be cursed. Water is everywhere, and these water demons are not to be messed with. In episode 3 of the inaugural season, David tells the group of a girl who wants to fit in with her cousin so badly she agrees to spend the night alone in a haunted house. Of course, paranormal activity ensues.
Bleak stuff. Luckily, it ends on an uplifting note, but what a doozy of a ghost story. Melissa Joan Hart stars in this season 2 tale, told by Kristen, of one seriously frightening ghost. Which happens to be haunted, naturally. Strangely, I seldom have nightmares. This little girl is currently years-old and about to finish a postgraduate course in History.
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She overcame her fears around puberty with no systematic treatment. The cases herein presented are strikingly similar to those that were abridged by Hall at the end of the nineteenth century 1. Hall's and our cases meet current diagnostic criteria for a specific phobia. The phobic stimulus or situation is avoided or endured with dread. Moreover, the phobic anxiety interferes with the individual's life in significant ways. Consequently, its importance as a cause of social and occupational impairment has not duly been appreciated.
The few studies that included fears of ghosts and related spooky entities in their inventories concur that they tend to decline during adolescence or soon thereafter 4 , 5. Although these authors also note that some fears may persist into adulthood, the implications of fearing ghosts in everyday life have not so far been examined.
Our cases demonstrate that the persistence of fears of ghosts may lead to social and familial impairments as well as to financial losses. In agreement with the aforementioned authors, PS had an early onset in our cases. Most of them got relief from their fears in their siblings' or parents' room when they were young.
As is usually the case in patients with phobic symptoms, other types of phobia were commonly associated with PS. PS is typically elicited by staying alone indoors at night. Anwesenheit has been described in normal people 8 , but it is a constant experience in our cases. The silence of the wee hours added to the dread, every ambient noise increasing the fear. PS abates almost instantly if they have someone at their side.
In some cases, a pet may have a soothing effect as well; turning the lights on, watching television, or going out may likewise attenuate the symptoms. Sleep impairment with subsequent daytime somnolence and decrease in productivity are major symptoms of PS. Sleep onset is delayed and when anxiety is eventually overcome by tiredness, sleep is fragmentary and haunted by dreadful images and thoughts.
Nightmares of witchcraft and allied supernatural themes are common. Therefore, specific questions addressing PS should be included in inventories for the assessment of poor sleep and insomnia.
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The differential diagnosis of phobia of the supernatural includes sleep terror, other phobias e. Nocturnal panic attacks should thoroughly be differentiated from PS Such attacks usually awaken the patient from NREM sleep between and a. These diagnoses are easily ruled out by careful history taking and symptom characterization in each case. Patients with PS are usually reluctant to acknowledge the real motive beneath their nocturnal anxiety because they tacitly assume that their fears are part of their psychological makeup or too weird to be mentioned.
Therefore, PS will be overlooked if not specifically sought for.
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Until systematic studies on the response of PS to specific therapies are conducted, a trial of antidepressants or benzodiazepines and cognitive-behavioral therapy may pay off. Letting them know that fear of ghosts is a symptom of a discrete neuropsychiatric disorder that may benefit from treatment is reassuring and often a first step on the way to rational management. Future research is needed to elucidate the neural correlates of PS.
There is good evidence that the amygdala and its connections with other structures of the basal forebrain and the cerebral cortex are critical for the experience of fear, suggesting that the amygdala is an essential pathophysiological node underlying at least a few types of phobia. Both functional neuroimaging 14 and lesion 15 , 16 studies may provide relevant information on the neural concomitants of the experience of dread, and, more to the point, on the haunting experience of sensing the presence of ghosts and other immaterial entities The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication.
The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The author is indebted to Mr. Alessandra Pinheiro, and Mrs.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychiatry v.
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Front Psychiatry. Published online Nov Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Mood and Anxiety Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry. Received Sep 6; Accepted Oct The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract The psychological and psychiatric literature has seldom appreciated the clinical fact that fears of ghosts and kindred supernatural worries may be a cause of intense discomfort, poor sleep, and socio-occupational impairment. Keywords: specific phobia, insomnia, fears, nocturnal anxiety, Anwesenheit, idea of presence.
Introduction Few people would candidly admit fearing ghosts to the point of feeling uncomfortable if left home alone late at night. Report of cases Case 1 A year-old physician was seen because of an episode of major depression from which he recovered in a few weeks with a daily dose of mg of venlafaxine. Case 2 A year-old unmarried hotel attendant lost her father from chronic liver failure after a protracted illness. Case 3 A year-old lawyer intended to divorce his wife due to long-standing marital problems, but he wondered whether he would be bold enough to live alone.
Case 4 A year-old college student was treated with fluoxetine for an episode of major depression of recent onset.
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Case 6 The following account was written by a bright year-old girl as a response to my request to describe her fears. Discussion The cases herein presented are strikingly similar to those that were abridged by Hall at the end of the nineteenth century 1. The syndrome of phobia of the supernatural Our cases demonstrate that the persistence of fears of ghosts may lead to social and familial impairments as well as to financial losses.
Author contributions The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication. Conflict of interest statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments The author is indebted to Mr. References 1. Hall GS. A study of fears. Am J Psychol. So he climbed up to the ledge at the top of the cliff. The cliff was too steep and dangerous and before he could finish drawing the symbol, he fell down.
He died thinking she chose not to come and rejected him. People living in the country, started a rumor that the place used to an ancient burial ground.